GISPopSci Project Registry

This project registry contains information about current research projects that incorporate spatial methods and population science. The project list below is sorted by date submitted. Please click the link for each project to learn more information

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Research Project Details

Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science

Institution: University of California, Santa Barbara

Description: CSISS is dedicated to building national infrastructure to support spatial analytic persectives in the social sciences. It provides training in the use of spatial tech

Related Publications: M.F. Goodchild and D.G. Janelle, editors, Spatially Integrated Social Science (Oxford University Press, 2004).

Contact: Michael F. Goodchild

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Measuring Spatial Segregation

Institution: Stanford University Population Research Institute at The Pennsylvania State University

Description: The study of the causes, patterns, and consequences of racial and socioeconomic residential segregation requires the careful measurement of segregation patterns. This, in turn, requires that measures of segregation incorporate an understanding of spatial proximity/distance, something that is now possible due to the increasing availability, sophistication, and ease-of-use of desktop geographical information system (GIS) software. The project will develop and refine a new approach to measuring spatial (race/ethnic) segregation that addresses known flaws in other measures. This approach is based on the understanding that a segregation index is a measure of the extent to which the local environments of individuals differ in their racial or socioeconomic composition (or, more generally, on any population trait). This approach is operationalized by assuming each individual inhabits a ‘local environment’ whose population is made up of the spatially-weighted average of the populations at each point in the region of interest. Given a particular spatial weighting function, segregation is measured by computing the spatially-weighted racial (or socioeconomic) composition of the local environment of each location (or person) in the study region and then comparing the average compositions of the local environments of members of each group. This approach has a number of features that make it well-suited to measuring spatial segregation. In particular, measures derived from this approach 1) are independent of choices of tract boundaries; 2) are sensitive to segregation patterns at any scale; 3) measure both spatial exposure and spatial evenness; 4) can be computed using any theory-based definition of spatial proximity and distance; 5) measure segregation among multiple racial/ethnic groups; and 6) are readily adaptable to the measurement of income segregation. This project will develop, evaluate, and refine a set of measures of segregation that a) are computable from available census and geospatial data, and b) enable researchers to measure segregation based on theory-driven definitions of social proximity and distance. In addition, the project will develop software tools, provide training materials (on-line) and opportunities (workshops), and publish descriptive analyses of segregation patterns and trends in order to enable the research community to use these measures.

Related Publications: Reardon, Sean F. and Glenn Firebaugh. 2002. "Measures of multi-group segregation." Sociological Methodology 32:33-67. Reardon, Sean F. and David O'Sullivan. 2004. "Measures of spatial segregation." Sociological Methodology 34:121-162.

Contact: Sean F. Reardon (at Stanford) or Stephen A. Matthews (at Penn State)

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Neighborhood, Food Environment, Diet and Health: Quasi-experimental Study

Institution: Population Research Institute at The Pennsylvania State University

Description: Reducing the population prevalence of obesity is a current major public health goal. Interventions to reduce the prevalence of obesity have generally focused on individual behavior and lifestyle but have met with limited success. Strategies that focus on the role of the built environment have been neglected. The purpose of this innovative pilot study is to evaluate, using a quasi-experimental design, the impact on diet and psychological health of a five-year $40 million state-government funded program – The Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative - that aims to improve the local built food retail environment in Philadelphia. The project has four specific aims. 1) To describe and compare fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and measures of psychological health in an intervention neighborhood against a matched comparison neighborhood. 2) To evaluate whether these patterns change after the opening of a new food superstore (the intervention) in the intervention neighborhood compared to a matched comparison site. 3) To explore impacts on defined subgroups of residents based on income, education and baseline consumption status. 4) To investigate changes in the retail economy in the intervention neighborhood and compare these with the comparison neighborhood. A telephone survey of residents of two Philadelphia neighborhoods (one intervention and one comparison) with an achieved sample size of four hundred and sixty-six men and women aged 18+ in each neighborhood at follow-up will be undertaken. At baseline, respondents will be contacted with a pre-notification letter which will then be followed by a telephone call designed to elicit responses to questions relating to diet, mental health, perceptions of food access, food shopping behavior, transport and a range of socio-demographic data. Respondents will then be followed-up at eight months in order to assess the effect of the intervention. In addition geographical information systems will be used to assess positive and negative changes in the local food retail economy and relate them to changes in physical access to food. Findings from the project will be used to prepare a proposal to NIH for a larger mixed-method, multi-site experimental study in a range of community settings (urban, small town, rural) throughout the USA.

Related Publications: Cummins S, Findlay A, Higgins C, Petticrew M and L Sparks (under review) Large-scale food retailing as health intervention: quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment. Cummins S, Sparks L, Petticrew M, Findlay A (2005) Large scale food retail interventions and diet. BMJ Cummins S, Macintyre S (2002) Food-deserts - evidence and assumption in health policy making. BMJ 325:436-8 Cummins S & Macintyre S (1999) The location of food stores in urban areas: a case study in Glasgow British Food Journal 101 (7) p542 Diez Roux AV (2001). Investigating area and neighborhood effects on health. Am J Public Health 91(11):1783-9. Diez Roux AV. (2000) Multilevel analysis in public health research. Annual Rev Public Health. 21:171-92. Diez-Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Caulfield L, et al (1999). NeighbourhoodNeighborhood differences in diet: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. J Epidemiol Community Health 53:55–63. Diez-Roux AV (1998) Bringing context back in: variables and fallacies in multi-level analysis. Am J Public Health. 88(2):216-22 Diez Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Muntaner C, Tyroler HA, Comstock GW et al (1997). Neighborhood environments and coronary heart disease: a multilevel analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 146:48-63. Diez-Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Caulfield L, et al (1999). NeighbourhoodNeighborhood differences in diet: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. J Epidemiol Community Health 53:55–63.

Contact: Stephen A. Matthews

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Urbanization, Health and Environmental Quality in Coastal Ghana

Institution: Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Description: This project draws upon existing links between Brown University, the University of Rhode Island, and the University of Cape Coast in Cape Coast, Ghana, to examine the social and demographic processes that are closely linked to health and environmental health risks, and how these in turn influence local thinking about environmental issues. The project includes such studies as the relationship between population concentration and water pollution in coastal lagoons; the determinants of environmental attitudes; knowledge of disease etiology, and the relationship between urbanization and fertility. The setting for this research is coastal Ghana, chosen for the ecological sensitivity of its coastal zone.

Related Publications: White, M.J., E. Tagoe, C. Stiff, K. Adazu, and D.J. Smith. 2005. "Urbanization and the Fertility Transition in Ghana," Population Research and Policy Review. 24:59-83. White, M., S. Muhidin, C. Stiff, E. Tagoe and R. Knight. 2005. "Migration and Fertility in Coastal Ghana: An Event History Analysis," in S. Agyei-Mensah, J. Casterline and D. Agyeman, eds., Reproductive Change in Ghana: Recent Patterns and Future Prospects. Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon: 101-115. Chattopadhyay, A. and M.J. White. "Migration and Fertility in Ghana: Beyond Rural-Urban Differentials." Hunter, L.M. 2005. "Household Strategies in the Face of Resource Scarcity: Are They Associated with Development Priorities?" Forthcoming in Population Research and Development Review. Reed, H.E., Andrzejewski, C.S., and M.J. White. 2005. "An Event History Analysis of Internal Migration in Ghana: Determinants of Interregional Mobility among Residents of Coastal Central Region." Under review. White, M.J. and L.M. Hunter. 2005. "Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting." Andrzejewski, C.S. 2005. "Knowledge of Etiology in Coastal Ghana: What Do People Know and How Do They Know It?" Under review. Andrzejewski, C.S. 2005. "Child Health Knowledge in Coastal Ghana: A Qualitative Study of Knowledge of Malaria, Diarrheal Disease and Respiratory Infection." Under review.

Contact: Justin Buszin

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Applications of Remote Sensing/GIS to An Analysis of the Arab Fertility Transition

Institution: San Diego State University International Population Center

Description: The AFT project began as a pilot project (1998-2000) funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to test the use of remotely-sensed images, geographic information systems (GIS), and spatial analysis to model the spatial and temporal variability in fertility in Egypt in both a rural setting (Menufia Governorate) and an urban setting (central Cairo). The results obtained from the pilot phase were sufficiently promising to extend the research to include a broader geographic coverage. The AFT was then supported by the National Science Foundation (2001-2004) and its geographic scope has been extended to other areas within Egypt, and also to urban and rural areas in Jordan. The project is administrated by the International Population Center, in the Department of Geography, San Diego State University Link to Project Summary.

Contact: John Weeks

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Intra-Urban Health In Accra, Ghana Assessed with Remote Sensing and GIS

Institution: San Diego State University International Population Center

Description: This project explores the use of remotely sensed imagery and GIS to enhance our understanding of intra-urban inequalities in health, using data for the metropolitan area of Accra, Ghana as a study site. The specific aims are as follows: (1) to derive local (neighborhood) measures of health by combining spatially referenced census data, survey data, and vital statistics into a geographic information system (GIS) for metropolitan Accra; (2) to derive local (neighborhood) measures of the built and natural environment through the classification and analysis of data from remotely sensed imagery; (3) to test the hypothesis that health levels in urban places are importantly influenced by the local neighborhood environmental context, including the natural and built environment, the socio-economic composition of the neighborhood's residents, and the location of a neighborhood within the broader urban environment (including its proximity to health clinics and hospitals); (4) to assess the relative contribution of neighborhood environmental context, population composition, and the neighborhood locational attributes to health outcomes in metropolitan Accra; (5) to model the interaction among the variables that predict health levels to determine what changes might be introduced into a neighborhood to bring its overall level of health up to a minimally acceptable standard; and (6) to evaluate how well the remotely-sensed data can, on their own as a proxy, model the intra-urban inequalities in health in ways that might lead these data to be used as health monitoring tools. The research involves three major steps: (1) creation of data layers and specification of georeferenced variables to be measured, including data from the 2000 Census, the 1998 and 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys, the 2003 Women's Health in Accra Survey, the 2003 WHO World Health Survey in Ghana, data from the vital statistics for 1999-2001, and a high resolution multispectral satellite image which will be classified according to the Ridd V-I-S model of urban ecology, subsequent to which a set of landscape metrics will be calculated to measure the built and natural environments; (2) statistical analysis to answer the questions posed by our Specific Aims, which will include spatial statistics, regression, and multi-level approaches; and (3) interpretation and dissemination of the results.

Contact: John Weeks

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Demographic Dynamics Along the Border

Institution: San Diego State University International Population Center

Description: John R. Weeks, Project Director, "Border Issues in Population/Family Planning," Grants from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Bergstrom Foundation, the S. H. Cowell Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation to the San Diego State University Foundation, 1986-1987. John R. Weeks, Principal Investigator, "Demographic Interrelatedness of the U.S. Mexico Border Region," Grant from the S.H. Cowell Foundation, and a Joint Statistical Agreement (JSA) with the U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1988-1989. John R. Weeks, Project Director, "Publication of Proceedings of Population Issues Along the U.S.-Mexico Border," grants from the S.H. Cowell Foundation, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, 1990. Manual García y Griego, John R. Weeks, and Roberto Ham Chande, "Migration to Mexico," in C. Nam, R. Weller, and W. Serow (eds.), Comparative Handbook of International Migration (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press), 1990. John R. Weeks, "The Binational Survey in San Diego and Tijuana," Frontera Norte 2(4): 234-236, 1990. John R. Weeks and Roberto Ham Chande (eds.), Demographic Dynamics of the U.S.-Mexico Border (University of Texas at El Paso: Texas Western Press), 1992. John R. Weeks, "The Changing Demographic Structure of the San Diego Region," in Norris Clement, editor, San Diego and Tijuana in Transition (San Diego State University: Institute for Regional Studies of the Californias), 1993. Paul Ganster, John R. Weeks, and Roberto Ham-Chande, “Demographic Dynamics of the U.S.-Mexico Border,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 114:124-129, 1995 John R. Weeks, “Demographic Dynamics of the San Diego-Tijuana Region,” Chapter 2 (pp 17-34) in Mark Spalding, editor, Sustainable Development in San Diego-Tijuana: Environmental, Social and Economic Implications of Interdependence. La Jolla: Center for US-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego, 1999.

Contact: John Weeks

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Immigrant Issues Along the Border

Institution: San Diego State University International Population Center

Description: John R. Weeks, Principal Investigator, "Determining the Costs of Illegal Immigrant Criminal Activity and Use of Emergency Medical Services in San Diego and Imperial Counties," Grant from the U.S. Department of Justice, through the United States/Mexico Border Counties Coalition, 2000-2001 David McIntyre and John R. Weeks, " Environmental Impacts of Illegal Immigration on the Cleveland National Forest in California." Professional Geographer, 54 (3): 392-405, 2002. Tanis Salant, Christine Brenner, Nadia Rubaii-Barrett, and John R. Weeks;Illegal Immigrants in U.S./Mexico Border Counties: The Costs of Law Enforcement, Criminal Justice, and Emergency Medical Services. Final Report to the United States/Mexico Border Counties Coalition, 2001 (http://www.bordercounties.org/). John R. Weeks, Co-Investigator (Douglas Stow, PI);Spatial Decision Support for Border Security,” Grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2003-2007

Contact: John Weeks

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Reproductive Health Issues Along the Border

Institution: San Diego State University International Population Center

Description: John R. Weeks, Co-Principal Investigator (with Rubén G. Rumbaut), "Perinatal Risks and Outcomes Among Low-Income Immigrants," grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Resource Development, 1990-91. John R. Weeks and Rubén G. Rumbaut, "Infant Mortality Among Ethnic Immigrant Groups," Social Science and Medicine, 33(3): 327-334, 1991. Rubén G. Rumbaut and John R. Weeks, "Unraveling a Public Health Enigma: Why do Immigrants Experience Superior Perinatal Health Outcomes?" Research in the Sociology of Health Care, 13(B): 337-391, 1996. John R. Weeks, Rubén G. Rumbaut, and Norma Ojeda, "Reproductive Outcomes Among Mexico-Born Women in San Diego and Tijuana: Testing the Migration Selectivity Hypothesis," The Journal of Immigrant Health 1(2):77-90, 1999. Rubén G. Rumbaut and John R. Weeks, "Children of Immigrants: Is Americanization Hazardous to Infant Health?" in Hiram E. Fitzgerald, Barry M. Lester, and Barry Zuckerman, editors, Children of Color: Research, Health, and Policy Issues (New York: Garland Publishing), 1999. Christopher Peak and John R. Weeks, “Does Community Context Influence Reproductive Outcomes of Mexican Origin Women in San Diego, California?”, The Journal of Immigrant Health, 4(3):125-136, 2002.

Contact: John Weeks

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Chitwan Healthy Aging Project

Institution: University of Michigan Population and Ecology Research Laboratory

Description: In fall 1999, Amy Pienta and Jennifer Barber conducted a pilot study which interviewed 103 older adults residing in the Chitwan Valley. This pilot study was undertaken in preparation for a new, large-scale project to collect data on mental and physical health from the elderly residents in the 171 neighborhoods sampled by the Chitwan Valley Family Study. Measures of physical functioning, chronic health conditions, lifestyle behaviors, health care utilization, barriers to health care utilization, depression, personal control, and cognition were pretested. This pilot study was an outstanding success. Locating and interviewing elderly respondents proved straightforward. Furthermore, virtually all of the survey questions proved feasible to ask and responses varied in reasonable and predictable ways. Our analyses of these pretest data give us great confidence that a large-scale project can be conducted successfully. Pienta and Barber are currently revising an R01 proposal previously submitted to the National Institute of Aging (National Institutes of Health) to fund a large-scale data collection project in Nepal.

Contact: Bill Axinn

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Developmental Idealism and Family and Population Dynamics in Nepal

Institution: University of Michigan Population and Ecology Research Laboratory

Description: This is a pilot project including both training and research, led by Arland Thornton. The research component of this project is a collaborative endeavor that will create and test research instruments for measuring developmental idealism, a concept developed by Thornton in his 2001 Population Association of America Presidential address. The pilot project will collect data from approximately 500 respondents, and will evaluate the effectiveness and usefulness of the research protocols and data. The training component will provide Nepali students and collaborators information concerning developmental idealism and its relationship to family and population dynamics, knowledge of questionnaire design, and practice in translating theoretical concepts into questions for survey administration.

Contact: Bill Axinn

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Chitwan Valley Family Study

Institution: University of Michigan Population and Ecology Research Laboratory

Description: This study was originally funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD R01-HD32912) for a five year period, 1994 through 1999. The study was designed to investigate the influence of changing social contexts on the timing of marriage, childbearing, and contraceptive use. The research investigates the extent to which changes in the community produce changes in family formation behavior, and whether the family organization of individual life courses produces these changes in behavior. The study used a combination of ethnographic and survey research methods to gather 171 neighborhood histories, 142 school histories, 118 health service histories, and 20 bus route histories in Western Chitwan. Personal histories were gathered from the 5271 individuals ages 15-59 years living in these neighborhoods using a semi-structured Life History Calendar and a highly structured survey questionnaire. The sample neighborhoods for this study were chosen to represent the neighborhoods in Western Chitwan, including each of the five major ethnic groups inhabiting the area: high caste Hindus, hill Tibeto-Burmese (such as Gurung, Tamang, and Magar), indigenous terai Tibeto-Burmese (such as Tharu, Darai, and Kumal), Newar, and other caste Hindus. To answer the questions posed by the original project, and also to answer new questions that arose during the preliminary analysis of the collected data, a five year continuation (1999 through 2004) of the project was granted by NICHD. The grant includes funding for analysis of the data collected under the original grant, as well as to continue the monthly register of demographic events originally funded under the Population and Environment grant. One of the analytic goals of the continuation project focuses on the original research question: To what extent do changes in the social and economic context influence family formation processes (particularly marriage, first birth timing, and contraception)? The continuation project also poses three additional questions. (1) How do qualitative dimensions of these contextual changes, such as the quality of new schools or health services, shape family formation processes? (2) Do neighbors' experiences with social change produce these contextual effects? And (3) Do variations in attitudes and beliefs, or neighbors' attitudes and beliefs, produce these behavioral changes?

Contact: Bill Axinn

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Population and Environment Study

Institution: University of Michigan Population and Ecology Research Laboratory

Description: This study was originally funded through a Request for Applications (RFA) from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD R01 HD-33551) for a five year period, 1995 through 2000. The study builds directly on the CVFS and uses the same study area, population, and sampling frame. The Population and Environment Study was designed to answer the following specific questions regarding the relationships between population change and environmental change: (1) To what extent do changes in marriage timing, household fission, childbearing, and migration influence changes in land use, water quality, and flora diversity? (2) To what extent do variations in land use, water quality, and flora diversity produce changes in marriage timing, household fission, child rearing, and migration? And (3) To what extent are the observed relationships between population processes and the environment produced by exogenous changes in the social and institutional context? This study includes a complete census of households within 171 neighborhoods, a household-level survey of agricultural practices and consumption patterns, land use maps of selected neighborhoods, flora data collection from surrounding forests and common lands, lab analysis and interviewer assessments of water samples collected from each neighborhood, a seasonal update of agricultural practices, and a monthly update of demographic events, including contraceptive use. A five year continuation (2001 through 2006) of the project was also subsequently granted by NICHD. The continuation grant includes funding for analysis of the data collected under the original grant, and focuses on a slightly refined set of research questions: (1) To what extent do marriage timing, household fission, childbearing, and migration influence land use and flora diversity? (2) To what extent do land use and flora diversity influence marriage, household fission, childbearing, and migration? (3) To what extent do agricultural practices and consumption patterns link population processes to environmental outcomes? And (4) To what extent are the observed relationships between population processes and the environment produced by exogenous changes in the social, economic, and institutional context? The continuation grant also includes funding for new data collection, including updates of land use and flora diversity measures, an extension of the monthly registry of demographic events, an update of the neighborhood contextual histories, a repeat of the household-level measures of agricultural practices and consumption patterns, and ethnographic information on environmentally-related behaviors and attitudes.

Contact: Bill Axinn

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa and Implication for Malaria Control

Institution: Princeton University The Office of Population Research at Princeton University

Contact: Burton Singer

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Integrated Urban Malaria Control: A Case Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Institution: Princeton University The Office of Population Research at Princeton University

Contact: Burton Singer

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


Texas Higher Education Opportunity Project

Institution: Princeton University The Office of Population Research at Princeton University

Description: The Texas Higher Education Opportunity Project i(THEOP) is a multi-year study that began in fall, 2000, which investigates college planning and enrollment behavior under a policy that guarantees admission to any Texas public college or university to high school seniors who graduate in the top decile of their class. The investigators have collected administrative data from 10 colleges and universities in Texas that differ in the selectivity of their admissions. The centerpiece of the study is a two-cohort longitudinal survey of sophomores and seniors who were enrolled in Texas public schools as of spring, 2002.

Related Publications: Published Tienda, Marta. 2001. "College Admission Policies and the Educational Pipeline: Implications for Medical and Health Professions." Pp. 117-142 in Smedley, Brian D., Adrienne Y. Stith, Lois Colburn, and Clyde H. Evans (Eds.), The Right Thing to Do, the Smart Thing to Do: Enhancing Diversity in Health Professions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press for the Institute of Medicine. Lloyd, Kim, Marta Tienda and Anna Zajacova. 2001. "Trends in Educational Achievement of Minority Students Since Brown v. Board of Education." Pp. 149-182 in Timothy Ready, Christopher Edley, and Catherine Snow (eds.), Achieving High Educational Standards for All: Conference Summary, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Forthcoming Tienda, Marta and Sunny Niu. forthcoming. “Capitalizing on Segregation, Pretending Neutrality: College Admissions and the Texas Top 10% Law.” American Law and Economics Review. Niu, Sunny; Marta Tienda; and Kalena Cortes. forthcoming. “College Selectivity and the Texas Top 10% Law: How Constrained are the Options?” Economics of Education Review. Kleykamp, Meredith A. forthcoming. “Military Enlistment Decision Making Among Youth: The Influence of Educational Goals, Military Institutional Presence and Family Background.” Social Science Quarterly. Tienda, Marta and Sunny Niu. forthcoming. “Flagships, Feeders, and the Texas Top 10% Plan.” Journal of Higher Education. Working Papers Tienda, Marta; Kalena Cortes; and Sunny Niu. 2003. “College Attendance and the Texas Top 10 Percent Law: Permanent Contagion or Transitory Promise?” Paper presented at the Conference on Expanding Opportunity in Higher Education, Sponsored by the Harvard Civil Rights Project, Sacramento, CA, October 23-25, 2003. Frost, Michelle Bellessa. 2004. “High School Students’ Educational Expectations and Race: How Does Racial Composition Matter?” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation Chapter, OPR, Princeton University. Opinion-Editorials Tienda, Marta. 2004. “Focus on Higher Education upgrades in Texas; Get past debate over top 10% law, make plan better.” The Houston Chronicle. Op-Ed Section, July 18. Tienda, Marta and Sunny Niu. 2004. “Texas’ 10-Percent Plan: the Truth Behind Numbers.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 50(20): B10. Tienda, Marta. 2003. “Texas’ Top 10 Percent Policy Hurts Minorities’ Chances for College.” Detroit Free Press, March 26.

Contact: Marta Tienda

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project Monograph

Institution: Harvard School of Public Health

Description: The problem: A lack of socioeconomic data in most US public health surveillance systems. Absent these data, we cannot: (a) monitor socioeconomic inequalities in US health; (b) ascertain their contribution to racial/ethnic and gender inequalities in health; and (c) galvanize public concern, debate, and action concerning how we, as a nation, can achieve the vital goal of eliminating social disparities in health. We accordingly launched the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project to ascertain which area-based socioeconomic measures [ABSMs], at which geographic level (census block group [BG], census tract [CT], or ZIP Code [ZC]), would be suitable for monitoring US socioeconomic inequalities in the health. Drawing on 1990 census data and public health surveillance systems of 2 New England states, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, we analyzed data for: (a) 7 types of outcomes: mortality (all cause and cause-specific), cancer incidence (all-sites and site-specific), low birth weight, childhood lead poisoning, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and non-fatal weapons-related injuries, and (b) 18 different ABSMs. We conducted these analyses for both the total population and diverse racial/ethnic-gender groups, at all 3 geographic levels. Our key methodologic finding was that the ABSM most apt for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health was the census tract (CT) poverty level, since it: (a) consistently detected expected socioeconomic gradients in health across a wide range of health outcomes, among both the total population and diverse racial/ethnic-gender groups, (b) yielded maximal geocoding and linkage to area-based socioeconomic data (compared to BG and ZC data), and (c) was readily interpretable to and could feasibly be used by state health department staff. Using this measure, we were able to provide evidence of powerful socioeconomic gradients for virtually all the outcomes studied, using a common metric, and further demonstrated that: (a) adjusting solely for this measure substantially reduced excess risk observed in the black and Hispanic compared to the white population, and (b) for half the outcomes, over 50% of cases overall would have been averted if everyone’s risk equaled that of persons in the least impoverished CT, the only group that consistently achieved Healthy People 2000 goals a decade ahead of time. US public health surveillance data should be geocoded and routinely analyzed using the CT-level measure “percent of persons below poverty,” thereby enhancing efforts to track—and improve accountability for addressing—social disparities in health.

Contact: Pamela D. Waterman

Project Listing submitted or updated: 0000-00-00


The Tsimane Health and Life History Project

Institution: University of New Mexico UC Santa Barbara

Description: The UNM-UCSB Tsimane Health and Life History Project is a joint health and anthropology project aimed at understanding the impacts of ecology and evolution on the shaping of the human life course. We focus on health, growth and development, aging, economics and biodemography of small-scale populations of hunter-gatherers and horticulturalists. We also combine biomedical and anthropological research with medical attention among Tsimane, an indigenous forager-farming group living in central lowland Bolivia in the Beni Department.

Related Publications: Gurven, M. Human survival and life history in evolutionary perspective. In: The Evolution of Primate Societies. Mitani, J., Call, J., Kappeler, P., Palombit, R., Silk, J. (Eds). Veile, A., Winking, J., Gurven, M., Greaves, R.D., Kramer, K.L. Infant growth and the thymus: data from two South American native societies. American Journal of Human Biology. McAllister, L., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Stieglitz, J. Why do women have more children than they want? Understanding differences in women’s ideal and actual family size in a natural fertility population. American Journal of Human Biology. Gurven, M. Why don't the Tsimane punish? ultimatums, dictators, and punishment. In prep for second cross-cultural games volume. SAGE. Stieglitz, J., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. 2012. Infidelity, jealousy and wife abuse among Tsimane’ forager-farmers: Testing evolutionary hypotheses of marital conflic. Evolution and Human Behavior 33: 438-448. Gurven, M., Stieglitz, J., Hooper, P., Gomes, C., Kaplan, H. 2012. From the womb to the tomb: the role of transfers in shaping the evolved human life history. Experimental Gerontology 47:807-813. Gurven, M., Blackwell, A., Eid Rodriguez, D., Stieglitz J., Kaplan, H. 2012. Does blood pressure inevitably rise with age? Longitudinal evidence among isolated Amerindians. Hypertension 60:25-33. Trumble, B., Cummings, D., von Rueden, C., O’Connor, K., Smith, E.A., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. 2012. Physical competition increases testosterone among Amazonian forager-horticulturalists: a test of the 'challenge hypothesis'. Proceedings of Royal Society B 279:2907-2912. Martin, M.A., Glassek, W.D., Gaulin, S.J.C., Evans, R.W., Woo, J.G., Geraghty, S.R., Davidson, B.S., Morrow, A.L., Kaplan, H.S., Gurven, M.D. 2012. Fatty acid composition in the mature milk of Bolivian forager-horticulturalists: controlled comparisons with a U.S. sample. Maternal and Child Nutrition 8(3):404-418. Rucas, S., Gurven, M., Winking, J., Kaplan, H. 2012. Social aggression and resource conflict across the female life course in the Bolivian Amazon. Aggressive Behavior 38:194-207. Winking, J., Gurven, M. 2011. The total cost of father desertion. American Journal of Human Biology 23(6):755-763. Blackwell, A.D., Gurven, M., Sugiyama, L.S., Madimenos, F., Liebert, M.A., Martin, M., Kaplan, H., Snodgrass, J.J. Evidence for a peak shift in a humoral response to helminths: age profiles of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the Shuar of Ecuador , the Tsimane of Bolivia, and the U.S. NHANES. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5(6): e1218. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001218 von Rueden, C., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. Why do men seek high social status? Fitness payoffs to dominance and prestige. Proceedings of Royal Society B 278: 2223-2232. Marlowe, F.W., Berbesque, J.C., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Gurven, M., Tracer, D. The 'spiteful' origins of cooperation. Proceedings of Royal Society B 278: 2159-2164. Stieglitz, J., Kaplan, H., Gurven, M., Winking, J., Vie Tayo, B. Spousal violence and paternal disinvestment among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists. American Journal of Human Biology 23:445-457. Vasunilashorn, S., Finch, C.E., Crimmins, E.M., Vikman, S., Stieglitz, J., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Allayee, H. Inflammatory gene variants in the Tsimane, an indigenous Bolivian population with a high infectious load. Biodemography and Social Biology 57(1):33-52. Winking, J., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. 2011. The impacts of parents and self selection on child survival among the Tsimane of Bolivia. Current Anthropology 52(2):277-284. Winking, J., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. 2011. Father death and adult success among the Tsimane: implications for marriage and divorce. Evolution and Human Behavior 32:79-89. Vasunilashorn, S., Crimmins, E.M., Kim, J.K., Winking, J., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Finch, C.E. 2010. Blood lipids, infection and inflammatory markers in the Tsimane of Bolivia. American Journal of Human Biology 22:731-740. Sell, A., Bryant, G., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., Sznycer, D., von Rueden, C., Krauss, A., Gurven, M. 2010. Adaptations in humans for assessing physical strength from the voice. Proceedings of Royal Society B 277:3509-3518. Kaplan, H., Gurven, M., Winking, J., Hooper, P., Stieglitz, J. 2010. Learning, menopause and the human adaptive complex. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 1204:30-42. Rucas, S., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Winking, J. 2010. Social Strategy Game: resource competition within female social networks among small-scale forager-horticulturalists. Human Nature 21:1-18. Henrich, J., Ensminger, J., McElreath, R., Barr, A., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Cardenas , J.C., Gurven, M., Gwako, E., Henrich, N., Lesorogol, C., Marlowe, F., Tracer, D., Ziker, J. 2010.Markets, religion, community size and the evolution of fairness and punishment. Science 327:1480-1484. + SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Gurven, M., Hill, K. 2010. Moving beyond stereotypes of men’s foraging goals. Current Anthropology 51(2):265-267. Gurven, M., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Hooper, P., Kaplan, H., Quinlan, R., Sear, R., Schniter, E., von Rueden, C., Bowles, S., Hertz, T., Bell , A. 2010. Domestication alone does not lead to inequality: intergenerational wealth transmission among horticulturalists. Current Anthropology 51(1):49-64. Smith, E.A., Hill, K., Marlowe, F., Nolin, D., Weissner, P., Gurven, M., Hertz, T., Bell, A. 2010. Wealth transmission and inequality among hunter-gatherers. Current Anthropology 51(1):19-34. Smith, E.A., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Bowles, S., Gurven, M., Hertz, T., Shenk, M. 2010. Production systems, inheritance and inequality in premodern societies: conclusions. Current Anthropology51(1):85-94. Smith, E.A., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Bowles, S., Hertz, T., Shenk, M., Gurven, M. 2010. Intergenerational wealth transmission and inequality in premodern societies: Reply. Current Anthropology51(1):119-126. Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Bowles, S., Hertz, T., Bell, A., Beise, J., Clark, G., Fazzio, I., Gurven, M., Hill, K., Hooper, P., Irons, W., Kaplan, H., Leonetti, D., Low, B., Marlowe, F., Naidu, S., Nolin, D., Piraino, P., Quinlan, R., Sear, R., Shenk, M., Smith, E.A., Wiessner, P. 2009. The Intergenerational Transmission of Wealth and the Dynamics of Inequality in Pre-Modern Societies. Science326:682-688. Supplementary Online Material Kaplan, H., Hooper, P., Gurven, M. 2009. The evolutionary and ecological roots of human social organization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 364:3289-3299. Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Winking, J., Eid, D., Vasunilashorn, S., Kim, J., Finch, C., Crimmins, E. 2009. Inflammation and infection do not promote arterial aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors among lean horticulturalists. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6590. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006590. Winking, J., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Stieglitz, J. 2009. The goals of direct parental care among a South Amerindian population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139(3):295-304. Gurven, M., Winking, J., Kaplan, H., von Rueden, C., McAllister, L. 2009. A bioeconomic approach to marriage and the sexual division of labor. Human Nature 20(2):151-183. Gurven, M., Fenelon, A. 2009. Has the rate of actuarial aging "slowed" over the past 250 years? A comparison of small-scale subsistence populations, and Swedish and English cohorts. Evolution63(4): 1017-1035. Gurven, M., Hill, K. 2009. Why do men hunt? A re-evaluation of "Man the Hunter" and the sexual division of labor. Current Anthropology 50(1):51-74. Sell, A., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., Sznycer, D., von Rueden, C., Gurven, M. 2009. Human adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276:575-584. Kaplan, H., Gurven, M., Winking, J. 2009. An Evolutionary Theory of Human Lifespan: Embodied Capital and the Human Adaptive Complex. In: Handbook of Theories of Aging. (Editors:Bengtson, V., Silverstein, M., Putney, N., Gans, D). Springer. Pp. 39-66. von Rueden, C., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. 2008. Multiple dimensions of male social statuses in an Amazonian society. Evolution and Human Behavior 29(6):402-415. Kaplan, H., Gurven, M. 2008. Top-down and bottom-up research in biodemography. Demographic Research, Special Issue: Reflections on the Future of Biodemography 19:1587-1602. Gurven, M., Zanolini, A., Schniter, E. 2008. Culture sometimes matter: intra-cultural variation in division norms among Tsimane Amerindians: real or spurious? Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 67: 587-607. Allen-Arave, W., Gurven, M., Hill, K. 2008. Reciprocal altruism, not kin selection, maintains nepotistic food transfers on an Ache reservation. Evolution and Human Behavior 29: 305-318. Gurven, M., Winking, J. 2008. Collective action in action: pro-social behavior in and out of the laboratory. American Anthropologist 110(2):179-190. Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Crimmins, E., Finch, C., Winking, J. 2008. Lifetime Inflammation in Two Epidemiological Worlds: the Tsimane of Bolivia and the United States. Journal of Gerontology Biological Sciences 63A(2):196-199. Marlowe, F., Berbesque, J.C., Barr, A., Barrett, C., Bolyanataz, A., Cardenas , J.C., Ensminger, J., Gurven, M., Gwako, E., Henrich, J., Henrich, N., Lesorogol, C., McElreath, J., Tracer, D. 2008.More ‘altruistic’ punishment in larger societies. Proceedings of Royal Society B 275:587-590. Walker , R., Gurven, M., Burger, O., Hamilton , M. 2008. The tradeoff between number and size of offspring in humans and other primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences275: 827-833. Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. 2008. Beyond the grandmother hypothesis: evolutionary models of longevity. For: Cultural Context of Aging: Worldwide Perspectives, 3rd edition (Editor J. Sokolovosky).Greenwood Press. Pp. 53-60. Tuljapurkar, S., Puleston, C., Gurven, M. 2007. Why men matter: mating patterns drive evolution of human lifespan. PLoS ONE 2(8): e785. Winking, J., Kaplan, H., Gurven, M., Rucas, S. 2007. Why do men marry and why do they stray? Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 274:1643:1649. Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. 2007. Hunter-gatherer longevity: cross-cultural perspectives. Population and Development Review 33: 321-365. Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Zelada Supa, A. 2007. Mortality experience of Tsimane Amerindians: regional variation and temporal trends. American Journal of Human Biology 19:376-398. Kaplan, H., Gangestad, S., Gurven, M., Lancaster, J., Mueller, T., Robson, A. 2007. The evolution of diet, brain and life history among primates and humans. In: Guts and Brains: an Integrative Approach to the Hominin Record. W. Roebroek, Editor. Leiden , Leiden University Press, pp. 47-81. Kaplan, H., Gurven, M, Lancaster , J. 2007. Brain evolution and the human adaptive complex: an ecological and social theory. In: The Evolution of Mind: Fundamental Questions and Controversies (S.W. Gangestad, J.A. Simpson, Eds). Guilford Publications: New York . Gurven, M., von Rueden, C. 2006. Hunting, social status and biological fitness. Biodemography and Social Biology 53:81-99. Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Gutierrez, M. 2006. How long does it take to become a proficient hunter? Implications for the evolution of delayed growth. Journal of Human Evolution 51:454-470. DeBacker, C., Gurven, M. 2006. Whispering down the lane: the economics of vicarious information transfer. Adaptive Behavior 14(3):249-264. Henrich, J., McElreath, R., Barr, A., Ensminger, J., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Cardenas , J., Gurven, M., Gwako, L., Henrich, N., Lesorogal, C., Marlowe, F., Tracer, D., Ziker, J. 2006. Costly punishment across societies. Science 312:1767-1770. Supplemental text. Gurven, M., and H. Kaplan. 2006. Determinants of time allocation to production across the lifespan among the Machiguenga and Piro Indians of Peru. Human Nature 17(1):1-49. Gurven, M. 2006. The evolution of contingent cooperation. Current Anthropology 47(1):185-92. CA+enhancements Walker, R., Gurven, M., Hill, K., Migliano, A., Chagnon, N., Djurovic, G., Hames, R., Hurtado, AM, Kaplan, H., Oliver, W., de Souza, R., Valeggia, C., Yamauchi, T. 2006. Growth rates, developmental markers and life histories in 21 small-scale societies. American Journal of Human Biology 18:295-311. Gurven, M., Walker, R. 2006. Energetic demand of multiple dependents and the evolution of slow human growth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London , Series B: Biological Sciences273:835-841. Electronic supplement. Rucas, S., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H., Winking, J., Gangestad, S., Crespo, M. 2006. Female intrasexual competition and reputational effects on attractiveness among the Tsimane of Bolivia. Evolution and Human Behavior 27(1):40-52. Henrich, J., R. Boyd, S. Bowles, C. Camerer, E. Fehr, H. Gintis, R. McElreath, M. Alvard, A. Barr, J. Ensminger, K. Hill, F. Gil-White, M. Gurven, F. Marlowe, J.Patton, N. Smith, and D. Tracer. 2005. 'Economic Man' in cross-cultural perspective: economic experiments in 15 small scale societes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(6):795-855. (with commentaries, and response) Kaplan, H., and M. Gurven. 2005. The natural history of human food sharing and cooperation: a review and a new multi-individual approach to the negotiation of norms. Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life. (Eds. H. Gintis, S. Bowles, R. Boyd, E. Fehr). MIT Press, pp. 75-113. Gurven, M. 2004. To give or not to give: an evolutionary ecology of human food transfers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.27(4):543-583. (with commentaries, and response) Gurven, M., K. Hill, and F. Jakugi. 2004. Why do foragers share and sharers forage?: explorations of social dimensions of foraging. Research in Economic Anthropology 23:19-43. Gurven, M. 2004. Reciprocal altruism and food sharing decisions among hunter-gatherers. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56(4): 366-380. Gurven, M. 2004. Economic games among the Amazonian Tsimane: exploring the roles of market access, costs of giving, and cooperation on pro-social game behavior. Experimental Economics7:5-24. Godoy, R., Gurven, M., Byron, E., Reyes-García, V., Keough, J., Vadez, V., Wilkie, D., Leonard, W.R., Apaza, L., Huanca, T., Pérez, E. 2004. Why don't markets increase economic inequalities? Kuznets in the Bush. Human Ecology 32(3):339-364. Gurven, M. 2004. Does market exposure affect economic behavior? The ultimatum game and public goods game among the Tsimane' of Bolivia. In: Foundations of Human Sociality: Ethnography and Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies. (Eds. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis E. Fehr, C. Camerer). Oxford University Press. Hill, K. Gurven, M. 2004. Economic experiments to examine fairness and cooperation among the Ache Indians of Paraguay. In: Foundations of Human Sociality: Ethnography and Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies. (Eds. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis E. Fehr, C. Camerer). Oxford University Press. Gurven, M., Hill, K, and H. Kaplan. 2002. From forest to reservation: transitions in food sharing behavior among the Ache of Paraguay. Journal of Anthropological Research 58(1):93-120. Gurven, M., Allen-Arave, W., Hill, K., Hurtado, A.M. 2001. Reservation sharing among the Ache of Paraguay. Human Nature 12(4):273-98. Gurven, M.D., Kim Hill, H. Kaplan, A. Hurtado, R. Lyles. 2000. Food transfers among Hiwi foragers of Venezuela: tests of reciprocity. Human Ecology 28(2):171-218. Gurven, M.D, W. Allen-Arave, K. Hill, A.M. Hurtado. 2000. It's a Wonderful Life: signaling generosity among the Ache of Paraguay. Evolution and Human Behavior 21:263-282. Gurven, M.D. 2000. How can we distinguish between mutational "hot spots" and "old sites" in human mtDNA samples? Human Biology 72(3):455-471. Harpending, H., Baxter, M., Gurven, M., Jorde, L.B., Rogers , A.R., and Sherry, S.T. 1998. Genetic traces of ancient demography. PNAS 95(4):1961-67. Henrich, J., Boyd, R., McElreath, R., Gurven, M., Richerson, P.J., Ensminger, J., Alvard, M., Barr, A., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Camerer, C., Cardenas, J.C., Fehr, E., Gintis, H., Gil-White, F., Gwako, E.L., Henrich, N., Hill, K., Lesogorol, C., Patton, J.Q., Marlowe, F.W., Tracer, D.P., Ziker, J. 2012. Culture does account for variation in game behavior. PNAS 109(26):E1678. Gurven, M. 2012. Comment on “Do risk and time experimental choices represent individual strategies for coping with poverty or conformity to social norms? Evidence from rural southwestern Madagascar” by Bram Tucker. Current Anthropology 53(2):169-170. Henrich, J., Boyd, R., McElreath, R., Gurven, M., Richerson, P.J., Ensminger, J., Alvard, M., Barr, A., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Camerer, C., Cardenas, J.C., Fehr, E., Gintis, H., Gil-White, F., Gwako, E.L., Henrich, N., Hill, K., Lesogorol, C., Patton, J.Q., Marlowe, F.W., Tracer, D.P., Ziker, J. 2012. Culture does account for variation in game behavior. PNAS 109(2):E32-E33. Von Rueden, C., Gurven, M. 2012. When the strong punish: why net costs of punishment are often negligible. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35:43-44. Smith, E.A., Gurven, M., Borgerhoff Mulder, M. 2011. Anthropology: it can be interdisciplinary. Nature 471: 448. Download original pre-chopped version here. Henrich, J., Ensminger, J., McElreath, R., Barr, A., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Cardenas, J.C., Gurven, M., Gwako, E., Henrich, N., Lesorogol, C., Marlowe, F., Tracer, D., Ziker, J. 2010.Response—Evolution of fairness. Science 329:389-390. Gurven, M., Schniter, E. 2010. An evolutionary perspective can help unify disparate accounts of grandparental investment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33:25-26. Gurven, M. 2007. Review of The Evolution of Human Life History. Journal of Anthropological Research 63(3):401-402. Gurven, M. 2006. "Human Behavioral Ecology". In: H. Birx (Ed). Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Thousand Oaks , CA : SAGE Publications. Gurven, M. 2004. Review of On Fertile Ground: Natural History of Human Reproduction. Journal of Anthropological Research 60(1):132-133. Gurven, M. 2004. Review of Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Journal of Anthropological Research 60: 399-400. Gurven, M., and K. Hill. 1997. Comment on Hadza women's time allocation, offspring provisioning, and the evolution of long postmenopausal life spans by Kristen Hawkes, James F. O'Connell, NickG. Blurton Jones. Current Anthropology 38:566-67. Stacey Rucas 2004. Female Intersexual Behaviors Among the Tsimane of Bolivia. Doctoral Dissertation: UNM. Jeffrey Winking 2005. Fathering among the Tsimane of Bolivia: A Test of the Proposed Goals of Paternal Care. Doctoral Dissertation: UNM. Eric Schniter 2009. Why Old Age? Non-material Contributions and Patterns of Aging Among Older Adult Tsimane. Doctoral Dissertation: UCSB. Jonathan Stieglitz 2009. Nuclear Family Conflict and Cooperation Among Tsimane Forager Horticulturalists of Bolivia. Doctoral Dissertation: UNM. Amanda Veile 2011. The evolutionary ecology of human infancy. Doctoral Dissertation: UNM. Paul Hooper 2011. The structure of energy production and redistribution among Tsimane' forager-horticulturalists. Doctoral Dissertation: UNM. Christopher von Rueden 2011. The acquisition of social status by males in small-scale human societies. Doctoral Dissertation: UCSB.

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